The list of individual drugs that cause kidney damage is so long that it’s hard to collect all of them.Every drug you put into your body passes through your kidneys. If the drug is secreted only through kidney then such drugs will cause more damage to the kidney. Chronic use of drugs can cause severely kidney damage. Here is a list of drugs which we use commonly and can cause kidney damage.
- Pain medications (Analgesics);Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID): aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and others available pain medication can cause kidney damage if someone is taking these drugs daily or regularly without first talking to health care provider.Thousands of Americans have damaged their kidneys by using these medicines regularly for too long.Doctors prescribe pain pills at the doses they believe will offer the greatest benefit at the least risk. Doubling or tripling that dose won’t speed relief. But it can easily speed the onset of harmful side effects. If you have given your pain medication time to work, and it still does not control your pain, don’t double the dose. See your doctor about why you’re still hurting.
- Antibiotics including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, amphotericin B, bacitracin, methicillin, ciprofloxacin, sulfonamides, and vancomycin, as they put extra strain on kidneys in the process of elimination from the body. However, this class of drugs are safe as long as taken in a dose adjusted to the level of your kidneys’ function. People with kidney disease need to take a smaller amount of antibiotics than people with healthy kidneys. So dose adjustment is necessary to prevent further deterioration of kidneys.
- COX-2 inhibitors, including celecoxib. Two medications in this class have as of now been pulled back from the market on account of cardiovascular poisonous quality: rofecoxib, and valdecoxib. These medications are an extraordinary class of NSAID and were produced to be more secure for the stomach, however have an indistinguishable hazard from different NSAIDs accomplish for kidney harm.NSAID-induced gastrointestinal toxicity is generally believed to occur through blockade of COX-1 activity, whereas the anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs are thought to occur primarily through inhibition of the inducible isoform, COX-2. However, the situation in the kidney may be somewhat different. Recent studies have demonstrated that COX-2 is constitutively expressed in renal tissues of all species; this isoform may, therefore, be intimately involved in prostaglandin-dependent renal homeostatic processes. Drugs that selectively inhibit COX-2 might, therefore, be expected to produce effects on renal function similar to nonselective NSAIDs which inhibit both COX-1 and COX-2.
- Heartburn medication including proton pump inhibitor class. They include omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole, esomeprazole.People who use proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have a 20 percent to 50 percent higher risk of chronic kidney disease compared with nonusers.Use of the heartburn medication already has been linked to acute kidney problems such as acute kidney injury and an inflammatory kidney disease called acute interstitial nephritis.
- Anithypertensive therapy has both acute and chronic effects on renal function in patients with primary hypertension.There is acute deterioration in renal function occur following the administration of ACE inhibitors because these drugs effect is on efferent arteriol of the kidney. It dilate the efferent arteriol and thus decrease the pressure in glomerulus and thus GFR will also be decrease at the start. But its chronic effect is very good as it is decreasing pressure inside glomerulus so it decrease chances of chronic renal failure. The acute complication should be considered in every patient on antihypertensive therapy who suffers an unexplained deterioration in renal function. Drugs like ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers and beta blockers was considered once that it can cause kidney damage.
- Rheumatoid joint pain drugs, including infliximab, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, which are utilized to treat intestinal sickness and systemic lupus erythematosus and in addition rheumatoid joint inflammation. These drugs can cause kidney damage and should be used cautiously.
- Lithium included in the treatment of bipolar disorder.Lithium is a common medicine used to help calm mood for treating people with mental disorders. Since such disorders need lifelong treatment, long-term use of lithium may be harmful to organs, such as the kidneys.Lithium may cause problems with kidney health. Kidney damage due to lithium may include acute (sudden) or chronic (long-term) kidney disease and kidney cyst. The amount of kidney damage depends on how long you have been taking lithium. It is possible to reverse kidney damage caused by lithium early in treatment, but the damage may become permanent over time.
- Anticonvulsants including phenytoin and trimethadione used to treat seizures, and also different conditions. Usually these drugs are used for long time, so it can cause kidney damage.
- Chemotherapy drugs including interferons, pamidronate, cisplatin, carboplatin, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, quinine, mitomycin C, bevacizumab, bevacizumab, cisplatin, and methotrexate.Chemotherapy causes renal dysfunction by damaging the blood vessels or structures of the kidneys.The kidneys break down and remove many chemotherapy drugs from the body. When chemotherapy drugs break down, they make products that can damage cells in the kidneys, ureters and bladder. The potential for kidney damage varies with the type & dose of chemotherapy drug used.
- Antiviral drugs, including acyclovir, indinavir and tenofovir can also kidney damage and should be used cautiously. Antiviral drugs cause renal failure through a variety of mechanisms. Direct renal tubular toxicity has been described with a number of new medications with unique effects on epithelial cells of the kidney. These include cidofovir, adefovir dipivoxil, and tenofovir, as well as acyclovir. Additionally, crystal deposition in the kidney may promote the development of renal failure. Several different drugs have been described to induce crystal nephropathy, including acyclovir and the protease inhibitor indinavir.
Prevention of drug induced kidney damage.
Drug-induced nephrotoxicity tends to occur more frequently in certain patients and in specific clinical situations. Therefore, successful prevention requires knowledge of patient-related risk factors, drug-related risk factors, and preemptive measures, coupled with vigilance and early intervention.Prevention strategies should target the prescribing and monitoring of potential nephrotoxins in at-risk patients. Whenever possible, risk factors should be corrected before drugs associated with nephrotoxicity are prescribed.In chemotherapy extra fluids may be given intravenously (into a vein) to help flush the products produced when chemotherapy drugs break down from the kidneys.